Circumstances[ edit ] Ibn Sina created an extensive corpus of works during what is commonly known as the Islamic Golden Age, in which the translations of Greco-RomanPersianand Indian texts were studied extensively. Greco-Roman Mid- and Neo-Platonicand Aristotelian texts translated by the Kindi school were commented, redacted and developed substantially by Islamic intellectuals, who also built upon Persian and Indian mathematical systems, astronomyalgebratrigonometry and medicine.
The philosophy of Ibn Sina is essentially Aristotelian, like other Arab philosophers.
Avicenna divides science into three parts: We will try to expose the philosophical system of Avicenna especially in helping us to study very well made by Mehren. The farthest point to which thought can rise, after covering the entire series of causation, is that of being absolutely necessary that the opposite is Possible.
The absolute necessity is that which, supposed to be non-existing, would necessarily be inconceivable, while the possible is what is also seen as well as existing and not existing.
We must distinguish the Possible which is possible only, c. As for what is necessary for yourself, this is the first cause or the Absolute.
The Absolute sees for himself his own being, it follows that it is also expected, the Thought, Thinking and Movement in Thought and Thought.
After defining the be-absolute, must be sought which determines the non-existence to actual existence. According to Avicenna, the first cause, is absolute unity, may not have the immediate effect the unit. But then, how come the multiple or the world of the Being who is One?
It will find the first movement, not in the Absolute itself, but in an exiting and emanated from him, and this being is the eternal intelligence out of the Absolute by thinking of it, thinking that itself for its object.
This is eternal intelligence, first emanation of the Eternal One, from the plurality that the eternal principles and the celestial bodies and the spheres that are subject to these principles, to the intelligible principle closest to us, ie d.
Intellect in the world that produces the active elements, then in its highest development, the human body and soul. Avicenna and Soul The theory of the soul was treated by Avicenna with particular care. It can, according to Aristotledefining the soul perfection or entelechy of any organized body endowed virtual life, one can, on the other hand, regard it as a force contained in all that is corporeal.
Whatever the approach taken, there are, according to Avicenna, three kinds of souls: The latter, in its existence, suppose the other two, as the animal soul assumes the vegetative soul.
The soul is not contained in any part of the body, or widespread as a force in the whole body and is united with him in this union and it is possible that one or the other takes the ascendancy. The soul is created for eternity in union with the body, it is ultimately to develop into an independent spiritual microcosm, where the good, the true and the beautiful blend with it in a single species.
During our life on earth, we have a dark premonition of the future condition, this feeling occurs, according to the diversity of the natural desire more or less intense, and it is precisely this that depends on degree of our preparation.
This preparation is completed only by the development of higher faculties of the soul. Thus prepared, the soul, as soon as it is delivered from the body, which has served as an instrument, into the enjoyment of eternal happiness as being purely spiritual.
Every soul is eternal and imperishable, will eventually reach the beatitude for which it is created.
Chapter Ibn Sina By Fazlur Rahman In the history of philosophical thought in the Medieval Ages, the figure of Ibn Sina (//) 1 is, in many respects, unique, while among the Muslim philosophers, it is not only unique but has been paramount right up to modern times. Correspondence between Ibn Sina (with his student Ahmad ibn 'Ali al-Ma'sumi) and Al-Biruni has survived in which they debated Aristotelian natural philosophy and the Peripatetic school. Abu Rayhan began by asking Avicenna eighteen questions, ten of which were criticisms of Aristotle's On the Heavens. La distinction de l’essence et l’existence d’après ibn Sina (Avicenne), Paris, Mayer, Toby. ‘Ibn Sina’s Burhan al-Siddiqin’, Journal of Islamic Studies 12 (), Parviz Morewedge, ‘Philosophical analysis of Ibn Sina’s essence-existence distinction’, Journal of .
If it deserves a punishment beyond the grave, the punishment will consist in the deprivation or suspension from that bliss. Conclusion on his philosophy From the above discussion, the philosophy of Avicenna can be seen as a spiritual deism.
However, the fundamental ideas of Aristotle and sometimes of Platonism rise up across the system. Although Avicenna was recognized after his death as a follower of Islam, his writings have generally been estimated heretics and gigantic efforts were made to destroy his works.soul in islamic philosophy The discussion of the human soul, its existence, nature, ultimate objective and eternity, occupies a highly important position in Islamic philosophy and forms its main focus.
According to Ibn Sina, God ‘s knowledge is an order knowledge in accordance with order of causes. Ibn Sina’s theory states that God knows changeable by knowing the general laws which describe the change the entity that is known undergoes2.
In the Medieval Age, the Muslims led the world in their pursuit of knowledge. Much of this knowledge was discovered by Muslim scientists while other knowledge was derived from other cultures including the Greeks, Persians, Indian, and Chinese.
Rather than conceiving of the soul as form of the body requiring a substantial transformation for its intellectual fulfillment, Ibn Sina instead considers the human soul as per se rational and as using the body as an instrument for its development and perfection as rational.
La distinction de l’essence et l’existence d’après ibn Sina (Avicenne), Paris, Mayer, Toby. ‘Ibn Sina’s Burhan al-Siddiqin’, Journal of Islamic Studies 12 (), Parviz Morewedge, ‘Philosophical analysis of Ibn Sina’s essence-existence distinction’, Journal of .
Chapter Ibn Sina By Fazlur Rahman In the history of philosophical thought in the Medieval Ages, the figure of Ibn Sina (//) 1 is, in many respects, unique, while among the Muslim philosophers, it is not only unique but has been paramount right up to modern times.