The Emergence of Existence as a Philosophical Problem Sartre's existentialism drew its immediate inspiration from the work of the German philosopher, Martin Heidegger. Though in Heidegger would repudiate the retrospective labelling of his earlier work as existentialism, it is in that work that the relevant concept of existence finds its first systematic philosophical formulation. And while not all existential philosophers were influenced by phenomenology for instance Jaspers and Marcelthe philosophical legacy of existentialism is largely tied to the form it took as an existential version of phenomenology.
Overview[ edit ] PAR has multiple progenitors and resists definition. It is a broad tradition of collective self-experimentation backed up by evidential reasoning, fact-finding and learning. PAR draws on a wide range of influences, both among those with professional training and those who draw on their life experience and those of their ancestors.
Many draw on the work of Paulo Freire new thinking on adult education research,  the Civil Rights Movement South Asian social movements such as the Bhoomi Sena,   and key initiatives such as the Participatory Research Network created in and based in New Delhi.
His recommendations to researchers committed to the struggle for justice and greater democracy in all spheres, including the business of science, are useful for all researchers and echo the teaching from many schools of research: Do not trust elitist versions of history and science which respond to dominant interests, but be receptive to counter-narratives and try to recapture them.
Do not depend solely on your culture to interpret facts, but recover local values, traits, beliefs, and arts for action by and with the research organisations. Do not impose your own ponderous scientific style for communicating results, but diffuse and share what you have learned together with the people, in a manner that is wholly understandable and even literary and pleasant, for science should not be necessarily a mystery nor a monopoly of experts and intellectuals.
However alternative traditions of PAR, begin with processes that include more bottom-up organising and popular education than were envisaged by Lewin. PAR strategies to democratize knowledge making and ground it in real community needs and learning[ clarification needed What are these strategies?
These principles and the ongoing evolution of PAR have had a lasting legacy in fields ranging from problem solving in the workplace to community development and sustainable livelihoods, education, public health, feminist research and civic engagement.
It is important to note that these contributions are subject to many tensions and debates on key issues such as the role of clinical psychology, critical social thinking and the pragmatic concerns of organizational learning in PAR theory and practice.
Labels used to define each approach PAR, critical PAR, action research, psychosociology, sociotechnical analysis, etc. While a common denominator, the combination of participation, action and research reflects the fragile unity of traditions whose diverse ideological and organizational contexts kept them separate and largely ignorant of one another for several decades.
Closely related approaches that overlap but do not bring the three components together are left out. As in mainstream science, this process "regards people as sources of information, as having bits of isolated knowledge, but they are neither expected nor apparently assumed able to analyze a given social reality".
PAR, in contrast, has evolved from the work of activists more concerned with empowering marginalized peoples than with generating academic knowledge for its own sake.
An important offshoot of Tavistock thinking and practise is the sociotechnical systems perspective on workplace dynamics, guided by the idea that greater productivity or efficiency does not hinge on improved technology alone.
Process consultation, team building, conflict management, and workplace group democracy and autonomy have become recurrent themes in the prolific body of literature and practice known as organizational development OD.
On the whole, however, science tends to be a means, not an end. Workplace and organizational learning interventions are first and foremost problem-based, action-oriented and client-centred.
Psychosociology[ edit ] Tavistock broke new ground in other ways as well, by meshing general medicine and psychiatry with Freudian and Jungian psychology and the social sciences to help the British army face various human resource problems.
This gave rise to a field of scholarly research and professional intervention loosely known as psychosociology, particularly influential in France CIRFIP.
In addition to this humanistic and democratic agenda, psychosociology uses concepts of psychoanalytic inspiration to address interpersonal relations and the interplay between self and group. It acknowledges the role of the unconscious in social behaviour and collective representations and the inevitable expression of transference and countertransference —language and behaviour that redirect unspoken feelings and anxieties to other people or physical objects taking part in the action inquiry.
Another issue is the extent to which the intervention is critical of broader institutional and social systems. The use of psychoanalytic concepts and the relative weight of effort dedicated to research, training and action also vary. It has left a singular mark on the field of rural and community development, especially in the Global South.
Tools and concepts for doing research with people, including "barefoot scientists" and grassroots "organic intellectuals" see Gramsciare now promoted and implemented by many international development agencies, researchers, consultants, civil society and local community organizations around the world.
This has resulted in countless experiments in diagnostic assessment, scenario planning  and project evaluation in areas ranging from fisheries  and mining  to forestry,  plant breeding,  agriculture,  farming systems research and extension,    watershed management,  resource mapping,    environmental conflict and natural resource management,     land rights,  appropriate technology,   local economic development,   communication,   tourism,  leadership for sustainability,  biodiversity   and climate change.
Literacy, education and youth[ edit ] In education, PAR practitioners inspired by the ideas of critical pedagogy and adult education are firmly committed to the politics of emancipatory action formulated by Freire with a focus on dialogical reflection and action as means to overcome relations of domination and subordination between oppressors and the oppressed, colonizers and the colonized.
The approach implies that "the silenced are not just incidental to the curiosity of the researcher but are the masters of inquiry into the underlying causes of the events in their world". Service learning or education is a closely related endeavour designed to encourage students to actively apply knowledge and skills to local situations, in response to local needs and with the active involvement of community members.
An international alliance university-based participatory researchers, ICPHR, omit the word "Action", preferring the less controversial term "participatory research". Photovoice is one of the strategies used in PAR and is especially useful in the public health domain. Keeping in mind the purpose of PAR, which is to benefit communities, Photovoice allows the same to happen through the media of photography.
Photovoice considers helping community issues and problems reach policy makers as its primary goal.In America, to be gifted as a reformer is regarded as a privilege even by reformers themselves. It has been said that the democratic principle, as commonly interpreted and exemplified, takes the moral fiber out of religion; and so, hitherto, it has done.
Mar 10, · The immediate location of the book is Cambridge, Mass., home of Harvard University, now a leading liberal educational institution but once a Puritan theological seminary. Transcriber's note. This text is an appendix to volume 12 of a volume set of the complete works of Nathaniel Hawthorne entitled: The Complete Works of Nathaniel Hawthorne, with Introductory Notes by George Parsons Lathrop and illustrated with Etchings by Blum, Church, Dielman, Gifford, Shirlaw, and Turner in Thirteen Volumes, Volume XII.
A woman can never be equal if she is denied the basic right to make decisions for herself and her family. Seven in 10 Americans support the right to legal abortion.
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- “America. betaking herself to formative action(as it is about time for more solid achievement, and less windy promise), must, for her purpose, cease to recognize a theory of character grown of feudal aristocracies, or form’d by merely literary standards, or from any ultramarine, full-dress formulas of culture.
polish, caste, &c., enough. Like “rationalism” and “empiricism,” “existentialism” is a term that belongs to intellectual history. Its definition is thus to some extent one of historical convenience.